Tommy TromboneTrombone Tommy
Tommy the Trombone is a silent short from 1912. The movie was produced by the Essanay film manufacturing company. Distributed by the General Movie Company, the movie - a 150-meter-long short movie - was shown in US cinemas on March 8, 1912. In the projections, it was programmed with the split-roll system, which was merged into a single role with another short movie, The Baby of the Boarding House.
Tommy trombone, su Internet Movie Database, IMDb.com.
The trombone is a musical instrument from the brass family. In the modern and most common version it is called trombone or trombone string and is characterized by a U-shaped pump (the "string" or "slide" in French, the "slide" in English) which connects two parallel tubes and can thus be extended by changing the length of the airway and thus the intonation of the fundamental wave.
There is also a piston trombone built according to the same principle as the horn. The musician who plays the trombone is called the trombonist. The trombone was the first of the brass instruments to have overtones in the seven positions of the current piston instruments and thus the chromatic scale thanks to the cord for which it was originally considered the most perfect of the mouthpiece instruments.
The first news of the trombone comes from the second half of the fifteenth century, when it was depicted in the painting by the painter Philippino Lippi Prato The Assumption of the Virgin (frescoes in Santa Maria Minerva in Rome) and also in a work by Perugino in the Escorial near Madrid. The instrument already looked like a modern trombone, but the conicity of the cannons was less pronounced, and the bell was very small compared to the modern instrument, with almost no widening.
The trombone's keynote was La, and the most important craftsmen who built the instrument were in Flanders and Nuremberg. At the beginning of the 17th century, Michael Praetorius illustrated and recorded four versions of the trombone in his Syntagma musicum: "Old Trombone" (similar to the modern alto trombone), "Common Trombone" (the modern tenor trombone), "Quarter" and "Quint Trombones" (tuned a quarter and a fifth below the tenor, similar to the modern contrabass trombone in F) and "Octav Trombone" (similar to the modern contrabass trombone in Si?, tuned an octave below the tenor).
In 1607 the orchestra of Claudio Monteverdi's L'Orfeo comprised five trombones with different registers (first "official" use of the trombone). The trombone developed over time, was mainly used in small groups and in church music and only became an integral part of the orchestra in the eighteenth century, when it was taken over by Christoph Willibald Gluck (Ifigenia in Tauride), Francois Joseph Gossec and then by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who will use the trombones to double the choir in various compositions,
The instrument subsequently attracted the attention of Beethoven, who introduced it to the Fifth, Sixth and Ninth Symphonies and wrote three equals for four solo trombones, and Schubert, who introduced it to his last two symphonies. During this period and until the first half of the 19th century, the trombone was widely used by German military gangs: this contributed to changing their fundamental pitch from La to Si?, expanding their cannon, and introducing rotation to lower the intonation in Fa.
The modern trombone was developed and widely used, so that it was widely used by Johannes Brahms, Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner, Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss. The composers had a complete and multifaceted instrument at their disposal, which Hector Berlioz confirmed, among other things, that the instrument was capable of expressing a broad spectrum of sound suggestions, from the "calm and raised religious accent" to the "wild cry of orgy".
Berlioz himself wrote a great trombone solos in his Grand symphony funèbre et triomphale. In the 19th century, some composers used it more stereotypically as an amplification of bass voices and overall harmonies. With the advent of dance music and swings in the twentieth century, the trombone has developed many new sounds and techniques.
During this time, a strong impulse for the development of the technique and the expressive potential of the instrument was given by musicians like Tommy Dorsey. In the early 1970s, Edward Kleinhammer (third trombone of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra) added a second turn in Solb to his bass trombone (which had only one turn in F), opening the "birth" of the new bass trombone in Bb, which would increasingly stand out from the tenor trombone in its meaning:
Sound conception (larger, darker and deeper, but always focused and resonant), drawstring technique (different positions depending on the combination of the two turns), selection of larger mouthpieces. Today the trombone is used in various musical styles, from classical music to jazzy, from Salsa to Scoa, from radio to military music.
The trombone owes its sound to a number of factors, especially the trombonist himself. Most brass players believe that red bells produce a slightly darker tone with a very wide dynamic range, yellow bells a slightly brighter tone with greater dynamic stability and pink bells a middle way between red and yellow.
Silver bells are not very common in the trombone world. The varnish tends to make the sound clearer and more crystalline, as opposed to the metal, which produces a more "raw" and "spontaneous" sound as it vibrates more freely. To fully understand these differences, the player must have a clean, centered and resonant sound.
The sound of a trombone is also influenced by the shape and development of the bell, the mouthpiece used by the instrumentalist and the blowtorch (the mouthpipe inside the initial part of the cord into which the mouthpiece is inserted), which also affects its timbre, intonation and emissivity.
The trombone can have a wide range of timbres: it can have a majestic, sonorous, loud, solemn, clear, impulsive and brilliant sound, but also a sweet, expressive, soft, lyrical, dark, bright and warm sound.